Chhath Puja


Chhath Puja, a significant Hindu festival primarily observed in the state of Bihar and certain regions of Nepal, holds a special place in the hearts of devotees. This sacred occasion is a tribute to the Sun god and his consort, Usha.

Throughout the festivities, worshippers come together to express their gratitude to the divine for sustaining life on our planet and to beseech the benevolent couple’s blessings. Interestingly, Chhath, often considered the pinnacle of the celebration, falls not on the initial day but rather on the third day of this auspicious puja.

Chhath Puja is a significant Hindu festival mainly celebrated in Bihar and some parts of Nepal. It’s dedicated to worshipping the Sun god and his wife Usha. Devotees observe this puja to express gratitude to the Sun god for supporting life on Earth and seek blessings from the divine couple. The main day of Chhath Puja is the third day, but the entire celebration lasts for four days.

During the festival, people believe that the Sun can heal various health issues and bring blessings of longevity, prosperity, progress, and well-being. The rituals of Chhath Puja include fasting (even from water), taking holy baths, offering prayers to the rising and setting sun, and meditating while standing in water. It’s a time of devotion and rigorous practices to honor the Sun god.

History of Chhath Puja

The celebration of Chhath Puja is believed to have ancient roots and may date back to the time of the Vedas. The rituals performed during the puja are similar to those mentioned in the Rig Veda, where the Sun god is worshipped. In ancient times, rishis (sages) were known to worship the Sun and sustain themselves without food, drawing their energy directly from the sun.

Another significant aspect of the puja is associated with the story of Lord Rama. According to ancient texts, after Lord Rama and his wife Sita returned to Ayodhya following their 14 years of exile, they observed a fast and offered prayers to the Sun god in the month of Kartika during Shukla Paksha. This event marked the beginning of Chhath Puja as a significant and traditional Hindu festival, celebrated with great enthusiasm and devotion each year.

Chhath Puja Celebrations

The Chhath Puja festival spans four days and begins four days after Diwali. Here’s how devotees observe each day of the festival:

  1. Nahay Khay: On the first day, devotees take a holy dip, preferably in rivers like the Kosi, Karnali, or Ganga, and bring back the sacred water to prepare offerings.
  2. Lohanda: The second day involves a full-day fast, which concludes in the evening just after sunset. After worshiping the Sun and the Moon, devotees prepare offerings like kheer (rice pudding), bananas, and rice for their family. They consume these offerings and then observe a 36-hour fast without water.
  3. Sandhya Arghya (Evening Offerings): On the third day, devotees take an evening dip in holy water bodies and worship the Sun god and Chhathi maiyya (Chhath goddess). They make evening offerings accompanied by folk songs.
  4. Usha Arghya: The fourth day involves another visit to the holy waters for morning offerings, known as “Usha Arghya,” to the Sun. After this, devotees break their fast.

During these days, devotees maintain purity and lead a simple lifestyle. They sleep on the floor with a single blanket. The main highlight of the festival is on the third day when they offer Surya Namaskar (sun salutations) and fruits to the Sun god.


Fasting during Chhath Puja offers various health benefits:

  1. Triggers Insulin Secretion: Fasting can increase insulin secretion in the body, leading to improved glucose absorption in the blood.
  2. Boosts Immune System: Fasting provides a break to the digestive system, helping flush out toxins from the body and renewing cells, which can enhance longevity.
  3. Improves Metabolism: Fasting can improve metabolism, regulate digestion, and promote regular bowel movements.
  4. Reduces Alzheimer’s Risk: Fasting can produce proteins in the brain that help reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

These health benefits highlight the positive effects of fasting during Chhath Puja.



Chhath Puja is particularly significant during the sunrise and sunset periods because these times are considered the safest for receiving solar energy without harmful ultraviolet radiation. People offer Sanjhiya Arghya (evening offerings) and Bihaniya Arghya (morning offerings) to the Sun during the Chhath festival to express gratitude to the Sun god for sustaining life on Earth and to seek blessings. These moments are believed to be the best for harnessing the energy of the Sun in a safe way.

Puja types